Glossary for MIPAV Help
This glossary defines all acronyms and selected terms used in this guide.
Numerics2DTwo dimensional.3DThree dimensional.4DFour dimensional.5DFive dimensional.AACRAmerican College of Radiology. The ACR, in conjunction with National Electrical Manufacturers Association, developed the Digital Image Communication in Medicine standard.AEApplication entity.AnalyzeUnix-based medical-imaging display and analysis software developed by the Mayo Foundation. MIPAV allows researchers to process, analyze, and visualize Analyze-formatted image files on virtually any platform.APIApplication program interface. Pieces of code that are used to perform common tasks, such as generate a standard window frame. Software developers often incorporate these pieces of code into their programs. An API is analogous to a package of form letters; APIs reduce programming time because common functions have already been written.BMPExtension for Windows Bitmap formatted files. BMP is the standard bitmap graphics file format that is used in the MS Windows environment.booleanThis data type refers to data that represents symbolic relationships between entities, such as those implied by the logical operators AND, NOT, and OR. Examples of valid boolean values are TRUE and FALSE.bytecodeCompiled format for Java code. Bytecode is analogous to object code. When the Java program is written and compiled, the compiled program is written in bytecode. When you execute the bytecode program, it is interpreted by the platform-specific Java Virtual Machine, which serves as an interface between your platform and the platform-independent bytecode. Java bytecode can be ported to almost any platform and executed, provided the correct Java Virtual Machine has been installed.CITCenter for Information Technology. CIT provides, coordinates, and manages information technology so that computational science at the National Institutes of Health is advanced.color 24Color 24 is commonly referred to as 24-bit color images. Full [rgb.htm RGB] color requires that the intensities of three color components be specified for each and every pixel. It is common for each component intensity to be stored as an 8-bit integer, and so each pixel requires 24 bits to completely and accurately specify its color. Image formats that store a full 24 bits to describe the color of each and every pixel are therefore known as 24-bit color images.CRComputed radiography.C-STOREComposite Storage.CTComputed Tomography.data typeA set of values from which a variable, constant, function, or expression may take its value. MIPAV accommodates the following data types: Boolean, Signed Byte, Unsigned Byte, Signed Short, Unsigned Short, Integer, Long, Float, Double, and Color 24.DCBDivision of Computational Bioscience. DCB is a research and development organization that provides engineering and computer science expertise to support biomedical research activities at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). DCB applies image processing and medical imaging technologies, high-performance parallel computing, high-speed networking, signal processing, state-of-the-art optical and electronic devices, bioinformatics, database technology, mathematical and statistical techniques, and modern hardware and software engineering principles to help solve biomedical research problems at NIH.DICOMDigital Image Communication in Medicine. Standard protocol developed by the American College of Radiology (ACR) and National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). Specifies a standard method of communication between two devices.DoublePrimitive, 64-bit, data type. Double is a floating point data type that accommodates decimal values, up to 14 or 15 significant digits of accuracy. Valid values can range from -1.7 x 10308 to 1.7 x 10308.EndianData organization strategy. Refers to the way computer processors store data in memory. Big-endian format stores the most significant byte (MSB) first. Little-endian format stores the least significant byte (LSB) first.FFFeet first.FloatPrimitive, 32-bit, data type. Float is a floating point data type that accommodates decimal values, up to 6 or 7 significant digits of accuracy. Valid values can range from -3.4 x 1038 to 3.4 x 1038.FTPFile Transfer Protocol.GIFGraphic Interchange Format. A compressed, bit mapped, graphics file format that supports color and various resolutions.GUIGraphical user interface. A user interface that is based on graphics rather than text.header offsetSpace reserved at the beginning of some graphic files that contain non-image data.HFHead FirstHPHewlett-Packard.HSBHue Saturation Brightness. In this color model, hue is the color, saturation is the purity of the color; and brightness indicates the brightness or darkness of the color.IDIdentifier.IEInformation Entity.integerPrimitive, 32-bit, data type. Integer is sometimes abbreviated as int. Integer accommodates values that are whole numbers. Valid values range from -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,648.interlacedA display technique that increases resolution. Half of the horizontal lines are drawn on the monitor during the first pass; the other half are drawn during the second pass. For example, the odd numbered lines may be drawn during the first pass and the even numbered lines during the second pass.interpolationThe generation of intermediate values based on known values.IODInformation Object DefinitionIODInformation Object Definition. Provides an abstract definition of real-world objects applicable to the communication of digital medical information.IPInternet Protocol.JavaHigh-level, object-oriented, platform-independent programming language developed by Sun Microsystems.Java VMJava Virtual Machine.JITJust-In-Time compiler. The JIT converts Java bytecode into machine language instructions.JPEGExtension for Joint Photographics Experts Group formatted files. Also refers to a compression type.LinuxAn operating system that is an open source implementation of UNIX.LongPrimitive, 64-bit data type. Long is a variation of the integer data type. Long accommodates values that are whole numbers. Valid values range from -9,223,372,036,854,775,808 to 9,223,372,036,854,775,808.LSBLeast Significant Byte. Also see endian.LUTLookup Table.Mac OSMacintosh Operating SystemMBMegabyteMIPAVMedical Image Processing, Analysis, and Visualization program. MIPAV is an n-dimensional, general-purpose, extensive image processing, and visualization program. It is platform-independent and assists researchers with extracting quantitative information from various medical imaging modalities.MRMagnetic Resonance.MSBMost Significant Byte. See endian for more details.MSEEMaster of Science in Electrical EngineeringMTXExtension for MIPAV's transform matrix files.NEMANational Electrical Manufacturers Association.NIHNational Institutes of Health.NMNuclear medicine.OSOperating systemPACSPicture Archiving System.PCXExtension for PC Paintbrush formatted graphic files.PDUProtocol Data Unit.PETPositron Emission Tomography.PICTExtension for Macintosh formatted graphic files.PLTExtension for MIPAV's graphics files.PNGExtension for Portable Network Graphic formatted graphic files.PSDExtension for Adobe Photoshop formatted graphic files.RAMRandom Access MemoryRasterBitmap file type.RawFile type.resolutionThe sharpness and clarity of an image.RGBRed Green Blue.RISTBD.RLE (Run Length Encoding)The file extension for graphics that have been reduced using run-length encoding. RLE is a compression method that converts consecutive identical characters into a code consisting of the character and the number marking the length of the run.ROIRegion of Interest.RSExtension for Sun Raster formatted graphics files.SCPService Class Provider.SCUService Class User.SGISilicon Graphics Incorporated.shortPrimitive, 16-bit data type. Short is a variation of the integer data type. Short accommodates values that are whole numbers. Valid values range from 0 to 32,767.signed bytePrimitive, 8-bit, data type. Signed byte is a variation of the integer data type. The signed byte data type signifies that valid values fall within a range of whole numbers. Valid values range from -128 to 128. Negative values (indicated by the negative sign) are permitted, hence the term, signed byte.signed shortPrimitive, 16-bit data type. Signed short is a variation of the integer data type. The signed short data type signifies that valid values fall within a range of whole numbers. Valid values range from -32,768 to 32,767. Negative values (indicated by the negative sign) are permitted, hence the term, signed short.SolarisUnix-based operating environment that was developed by Sun Microsystems. Solaris consists of the Sun operating system and a windowing system.SOPService Object PairSOPService Object Pair.SPECTTBD.TCP/IPTransmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. The suite of communications protocols used to connect hosts on the Internet.TGAExtension for Truevision Graphics Adapter formatted graphics files.TIFFExtension for Tag Image File Format formatted graphics files.UIDUnique Identifier.UNIXMulti-tasking, multi-user operating system developed by Bell Labs. Many versions of UNIX abound, including Linux.unsigned bytePrimitive, 8-bit, data type. Unsigned byte is a variation of the integer data type. The unsigned byte data type signifies that valid values must fall within a specified range of positive, whole-number values. Valid values range from 0 to 128. Negative values (indicated by the negative sign) are not valid, hence the term, unsigned byte.unsigned shortPrimitive, 16-bit data type. Unsigned short is a variation of the integer data type. The unsigned short data type signifies that valid values must fall within a specified range of positive, whole-number values. Valid values range from 0 to 32,767. Note that negative values (indicated by the negative sign) are not valid, hence the term, unsigned byte.USUltrasoundVMVirtual Machine.VOIVolume of interest (used interchangeably with ROI).voxelSmallest distinguishable cube-shaped part of a 3D image.XBMX BitMap file format.XPMX PixMap file format.